Visual Physics of baseball

In this representation, we will combine all the effects of temperature, humidity and barometric pressure due to elevation, on the movement a baseball pitcher is afforded by changes in the air.  When all air qualities are combined, you can observe why a pitcher who is advantaged by the cold air at sea level, throwing a pitch in excess of 90 mph, can easily be very dominant over hitters whose recent exposure has been primarily high temperatures in western and midwestern locations at somewhat higher elevation.  This knowledge, along with our Visual Memory Index, will help you to determine who is ready for additional ball movement and who may be at a disadvantage against such a pitcher.

The effects of the weight of air on a baseball pitch from temperature, humidity and altitude air pressure  combined, are depicted in the video representation on this page.  For a printable synopsis including some of the representations in this website go to 

View this series on our Videos Page.

This representation was provided to Clifton Neeley by Paulin Research, Houston, Texas, Mr. Tony Paulin, PE.  The program utilizes physics formulas from the Physics of Baseball, by Dr. Robert Adair as well as studies by doctoral program students and known formulas in the engineering and aeronautics industries.  The depiction is similar to a point to point launch of a ballistic missile or other projectile, converted to match the cover, weight, shape, density and circumference of a spinning baseball projected through the properties of natural air.  Sincere thanks to Mr. Tony Paulin.

Mr. Paulin also utilized the NeeleyAir gauge formulas of Clifton Neeley, Air Resistance Technologies, Inc., Air Chamber Facilities, Inc., Altitude Sports Triages, Inc. in collaboration with Dr. Douglas Hittle, Professor Emeritus, Colorado State University; Gregory Martino, PE, Greeley, CO; Jonathan Rafacz, Dr. Feng Wang, Dr. Todd Sandrin, Arizona State University; Gene Vosteen, Foxstone Industries, Inc.   Many thanks to all these people who collaborated to help with this project.